Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation
Nowadays, people bear great responsibility for global warming on the planet. There are many factors affecting this issue. Besides, many of them have not been examined yet. Therefore, climate change is a topic that worries many scientists. There are natural and anthropogenic causes of current climate changes and both of them have an irreparable effect on the planet. Politicians around the world develop various mitigation strategies with the purpose to reduce and slow down a negative effect of climate changes. It is necessary to remember that climate depends on a combination of numerous factors that cooperate with each other and, thus, it is important to take into account all factors when developing mitigation strategies.
As mentioned above, there are both natural and anthropogenic causes of global warming. It is highly necessary to study both of them as they complement each other. It is possible to give many examples of global warming caused naturally. The first example is solar radiation. The sun is considered the major source of heat (Pritchard, 2014). Solar energy is turning into heat on the surface of the Earth. It is an integral component, which shapes the climate of the planet. Taking into consideration the durable period, the brighter is the sun, the more energy it emits. It is connected with the fact that it develops due to the major sequence. Such a slow development has an impact on the earth’s atmosphere. Scientists proved that at the initial stage of the Earth’s history, the sun was rather cold for water on the surface to be liquid (Pritchard, 2014). Such changes in solar activity are regarded a significant factor in the beginning of the small ice age. Nevertheless, the nature of the solar activity has not been examined completely. Orbital changes are one more important natural factor affecting the climate. They are considered similar to the impact of the solar activity. Insufficient modifications in the position of the orbit are the reason of solar radiation reallocation on the surface of the Earth (Pritchard, 2014). It is possible to predict such changes as they are a result of the interaction of the moon, the Earth, and other planets (Pritchard, 2014). These natural phenomena are considered the major reasons of global warming.
In addition to natural factors, it is necessary to consider the anthropogenic ones. The first example is fuel combustion. It has the most noticeable impact on global warming. Consumption of fuel by people has caused the great increase in concentration of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. The current level of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher than ever (Thomas, 2009). Along with the increasing concentration of methane, these changes portend the rise in temperature. Land use is another example of the anthropogenic factor. Agriculture changes the planet drastically. For example, the water balance changes in the irrigated area. This factor can amend the albedo of the certain area because it modifies the characteristics of the underlying surface and, as a result, the quantity of solar radiation absorbed (Thomas, 2009). These are only two examples of anthropogenic effect, but there are more of them, and all have a negative impact on the climate.
It is obvious that global warming is currently taking place. There are many confirmations of this fact. Temperature measurements of the upper layer of the World Ocean testify to the global warming, as these temperatures are slowly increasing (Calster, Vandenberghe & Reins, 2015). One more proof of global warming includes the decrease of mountain glaciations. Scientists have studied that, except for Norway, glaciers retreat thus causing the rise of the level of oceans (Calster et al., 2015). One of the greatest proofs of global warming consists in temperature rising at 1.4° C every year (Calster et al., 2015). Therefore, these scientific facts prove that global warming is not a fiction of scientists.
The majority of people around the world understand the seriousness of global warming. Thus, there are many strategies that help fight with this problem. Firstly, it includes decrease of emissions of greenhouse gases. The level of the latter in the atmosphere can be minimized by switching to zero-emission energy sources. For example, the European Union toughened the norms of emissions of carbon dioxide. In 2014, the European Parliament voted to decrease CO2 emissions by cars to 95 grams per kilometer by 2021 (Ussiri & Lal, 2017). This strategy is highly effective as it allows reducing the level of carbon emissions and, thus, slowing down global warming. However, it was expensive to implement due to certain policy implications. The most significant fact is that it has an impact on the automobile industry. Another useful strategy is a technology of clean coal. Investments in these technologies are crucial for carbon emissions decrease. Representatives of the World Coal Association have made a platform for the development of coal effectiveness to assist the implementation of clean coal technologies. Such a strategy can be highly effective, as the purpose of this platform includes the development of a scheme to reform the effectiveness of coal-fired power plants (Ussiri & Lal, 2017). However, it will be rather expensive to realize. This strategy is still under the development in many states along with the paucity of regulations and laws. Besides, there is often the lack of government supervision in the industry. Despite this fact, these strategies can greatly reduce a problem of global warming.
Global warming is considered an established fact, and it is necessary to implement various policies that would improve the modern situation. For example, it is possible to propose the mandatory transition to electric vehicles in all major cities. Citizens should have only electric cars, and vehicles of the old sample should be forbidden. It should especially apply to megacities. This policy is rather radical but it can significantly reduce the level of carbon dioxide emissions.
Global warming is currently taking place, being one of the most serious problems of modern time. There are many proofs for this fact. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the negative effect of climate changes. The problem of global warming requires immediate cooperation of the developed countries worldwide. Mitigation strategies for the effects of global warming can provide great advantages to the environment and the society in general.
Calster, G.,Vandenberghe, W., & Reins, L. (Eds.). (2015). Research handbook on climate change mitigation law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Pritchard, L. (2014). Gambling with global warming. The New Atlantis, (41), 39-50.
Thomas, K. (2009). From Kyoto to Copenhagen: The issue of global warming, equity and mitigation. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 70, 774-784.
Ussiri, D., & Lal, R. (2017). Carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation and adaptation. New York, NY: Springer.